Grammar: Future Tenses on the web-site for teachers and learners of English as a secondary language from a German point of view
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The future tenses

 going-to-future
 
Form
 I   am      ( Ich habe vor......) 
 
You   are 
         
He         
She  is  going to  see (verb) (Er/Sie hat vor.....)
 It   is  going to rain (Es wird gleich....)
         
We        
You   are       
They        
 
Function
  • Intention + plan (premeditated), Absicht und Vorhaben 
  • Certainty, Gewißheit/Schlußfolgerung 
  • Curriculum 1. Lehrplan

    Klasse 6/7 
    Wiederholung Klasse 9 

    2. Lehrbuch
    previously done:
    forms of "to be"
    present progressive
     

    Difficulties 1. form
    forms of to be + going (omission of to + verb) 

    2. function
    meaning: to be + going to = future ( Sinnentleerung von to go)

    3. inter-, intralingual interferences
    Verwechslung mit present progressive

    4. other difficulties

  • going to go, going to come werden meist durch present progressive: 

  •    he's going / coming next week ersetzt.
  • Konkurrierende Strukturen: 
  •   Do you mean/intend to do it?  (Hast du die Absicht....)
      Are you prepared to do it? (Bist du bereit.....)
      Do you want/wish to do it?  (Willst/Möchtest du ...)
      I hope to arrive in time tomorrow (Hoffentlich werde ich..)
      I'd like to have a birthday party next Monday (Ich möchte gerne...)
     
    Situations
  • making plans: I'm going to watch TV this evening (= I want to watch TV and I'm determined to do so) : 

  •   vorher überlegte Absichten: Wunsch und Entschluß
  • Look at those clouds. It's going to rain soon.

  •    ( = I can see from all signs what will be next without being able to do anything against it.) 
      Gewißheit aufgrund von Indizien ohne persönlichen Einfluß 

    will-future
     
    Form I / We            shall / will / 'll / shan't + go (verb)

    You 
    He 
    She                 will / 'll / won't           + go (verb)
    It 
    You 
    They

    Shall/ Shant     I / we                        + go (verb)
    Will / won't      you, he, she, it, they  + go (verb)

    Function 1. Intention (unpremeditated), spontanes Versprechen oder spontane 
        Willenserklärung (fast nur mit I / We)
    2. Prediction - personal opinion, 
        Weather report: Vorhersage ohne persönliche Entscheidung, äußere Umstände
    3. if-clauses type I (reale Bedingungen)
    4. bei Verben, die keine Present progressive form  bilden
    Curriculum 1. Lehrplan

    1. Klasse 6/7+/9 
    2. Klasse 7/8/9
    3. Klasse 7

    2. Lehrbuch
    previously done:
    I must go = modal auxiliaries + verb

    Difficulties 1. form
    will/shall/won't/shan't and other auxiliaries

    2. function
    meaning 

    3. inter-, intralingual interferences
    * "I will" can't be translated with  "Ich will" --> I want to

    4. other difficulties
    I won't = I want (pronunciation, spelling and usage)
     

    Situations 1. spontane Absicht: 
    • offer:                Shall I help... 
    • suggestion       Will you come... 
    • promises:          I'll do it. 
    2. Personal Opinion:  I think he'll come.
        Weather report:      It'll be cloudy / There'll be clouds
    3. if - clauses

    present progressive
     
    Form
    I am
    He
    She
    It is  (verb + ing) running
    We
    You are
    They
    Function 1. definite future arrangements (fester Plan / Vereinbarung) mit Zeitangabe in naher Zukunft
        ((together with adverbials of time: soon, next Monday, tomorrow, this afternoon, soon etc.)

    2. Are you going? - Yes, I'm coming.  statt "going to-future" bei to go / to come
     
    Curriculum 1. Lehrplan
    Fehlanzeige
    2. Lehrbuch
    previously done: present progressive in present meaning
    Difficulties 1. form:  restricted list of verbs see simple present tense

    2. function: differences between "going-to" future" and present progressive
                      present progressive with present or future meaning 

    3. inter-, intralingual interferences: *  see function

    4. other difficulties: word order of/with adverbials of time

    Situations
    1. arrangements: Tony is coming in half an hour.
    2. plans (already agreed on)  So We are leaving tomorrow at 7.
    3. programmes (decided by the calendar): We are watching TV tonight

    Simple present
     
    Form I, You, We, They go (=verb)
    He, She, It runs
    Function 1. fixed dates - You often use the verbs "arrive, start, leave, end as signal words.
    2. real conditions
    3. relating to temporal settings
    Curriculum Fehlanzeige
    Difficulties 1. form - "With He/She/It -s has got to hit"

    2. function - competing with the present progressive in future meaning
       The train leaves at 11.30 - The train is leaving in 5 minutes.

    3. inter-, intralingual interferences: more frequent use in German than in English
     

    Situations 1. Programmes, schedules, time-tables etc which fix the speaker's or agents time
       The train arrives at 11.30 
    2. In if-clauses (type I) (but use will-future in the main clauses):
        If I do my homework, I'll get a good mark.
    3. in temporal clauses with "before, as soon as, when" (but use will-future in the main clauses):
       Before I go home, I'll phone you.
       As soon as I finish, I'll go home.
       When she meets me, she'll give me the book back.
       I won't start to eat until Peter comes home.
       Mary will bake a cake while Peter washes the car.


    <Click here and you will always get back to the table of contents>
    Table of Contents
    Example:
    "future tenses"
    HOMEback to the homepagePAGE back to the previous page back to
    Questions and negations
    A little story
    go on to
    progressive substitution: 
    "future"
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